PFAS analyses are challenging as there are thousands of chemical structures and many are thought to be converted through bio-transformation in soil and during waste treatment (so-called precursors). Besides, PFAS do not present themselves alone. They can associate with other co-contaminants. The problem is compounded by the fact that standardized analytical methods do not exist for a vast majority of these chemicals. Therefore, sample preparation methods must be developed and tailored to the specific contaminant mix and readied for analysis. We have experience in preparing samples in complex environmental media and characterizing non-standard PFAS compounds such as fluorotelomers and sulfonates; anions, cations, zwitterions and neutrals.